a picture showing the rules of the war in Islam which the prophet mentioned to his friendsABOUT ISLAM 

Islam War Rules or Jihad rules in Islam

As Islam was a new religion, Islam had many enemies and non-believers who had to fight against it and stop the prophet from changing their thoughts and their lifestyle so they fought him many times until he left to Al-Madina, they had to declare war on him so the prophet had to make war rules during that and after that in the upcoming wars since all countries around him were conquered already with Romans or Persians, we will talk about that in another topic but in this one we will mention the war rules in Islam.

1-Protection of human life, or the right to life. Islam, without any other religions and laws, takes care of life itself.،

Because of that We ordained for the Children of Israel: that whoever kills a person—unless it is for murder or corruption on earth—it is as if he killed the whole of mankind; and whoever saves it, it is as if he saved the whole of mankind. Our messengers came to them with clarifications, but even after that, many of them continue to commit excesses in the land. [ 5 Al Ma’idah –  32 ]

There have been many prophetic talks calling the faithful to respect and protect the human soul. also Islam made it one of the biggest mistakes { making a partner to Allah and ending someone life)

2-Forbid the fighting of non-aggressors and prohibit aggressive war, giving Muslims the right to legitimate defense, which mankind has only recently known.

190 And fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not commit aggression; Allah does not love the aggressors.
١٩١ وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ وَأَخْرِجُوهُمْ مِنْ حَيْثُ أَخْرَجُوكُمْ ۚ وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَشَدُّ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ ۚ وَلَا تُقَاتِلُوهُمْ عِنْدَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ حَتَّىٰ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِيهِ ۖ فَإِنْ قَاتَلُوكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوهُمْ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ
191 And kill them wherever you overtake them, and expel them from where they had expelled you. Oppression is more serious than murder. But do not fight them at the Sacred Mosque, unless they fight you there. If they fight you, then kill them. Such is the retribution of the disbelievers.
١٩٢ فَإِنِ انْتَهَوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ
192 But if they cease, then Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.
١٩٣ وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ لِلَّهِ ۖ فَإِنِ انْتَهَوْا فَلَا عُدْوَانَ إِلَّا عَلَى الظَّالِمِينَ
193 And fight them until there is no oppression, and worship becomes devoted to Allah alone. But if they cease, then let there be no hostility except against the oppressors.
١٩٤ الشَّهْرُ الْحَرَامُ بِالشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْحُرُمَاتُ قِصَاصٌ ۚ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ فَاعْتَدُوا عَلَيْهِ بِمِثْلِ مَا اعْتَدَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ
194 The sacred month for the sacred month; and sacrilege calls for retaliation. Whoever commits aggression against you, retaliate against him in the same measure as he has committed against you. And be conscious of Allah, and know that Allah is with the righteous. [ 2 Al-Bakarah – 190:194]

3-Islam has allowed War to respond to injustice, with the same punishment as urging amnesty if possible. ،

٣٩ أُذِنَ لِلَّذِينَ يُقَاتَلُونَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوا ۚ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ نَصْرِهِمْ لَقَدِيرٌ
39 Permission is given to those who are fought against, and Allah is Able to give them victory.
٤٠ الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ إِلَّا أَنْ يَقُولُوا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ ۗ وَلَوْلَا دَفْعُ اللَّهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُمْ بِبَعْضٍ لَهُدِّمَتْ صَوَامِعُ وَبِيَعٌ وَصَلَوَاتٌ وَمَسَاجِدُ يُذْكَرُ فِيهَا اسْمُ اللَّهِ كَثِيرًا ۗ وَلَيَنْصُرَنَّ اللَّهُ مَنْ يَنْصُرُهُ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَقَوِيٌّ عَزِيزٌ
40 Those who were unjustly evicted from their homes, merely for saying, “Our Lord is Allah.” Were it not that Allah repels people by means of others: monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques—where the name of Allah is mentioned much—would have been demolished. Allah supports whoever supports Him. Allah is Strong and Mighty. [22 Al-Hajj – 39:40]

also mentioned :

126 If you were to retaliate, retaliate to the same degree as the injury done to you. But if you resort to patience—it is better for the patient. [ 16 al-Nahl  – 126]

4-Islam has made war a punishment for treason, repudiation of the Covenant and repudiation of agreements concluded by the Islamic State with other states.،

٥٦ الَّذِينَ عَاهَدْتَ مِنْهُمْ ثُمَّ يَنْقُضُونَ عَهْدَهُمْ فِي كُلِّ مَرَّةٍ وَهُمْ لَا يَتَّقُونَ
56 Those of them with whom you made a treaty, but they violate their agreement every time. They are not righteous.
٥٧ فَإِمَّا تَثْقَفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْحَرْبِ فَشَرِّدْ بِهِمْ مَنْ خَلْفَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَذَّكَّرُونَ
57 If you confront them in battle, make of them a fearsome example for those who follow them, that they may take heed.
٥٨ وَإِمَّا تَخَافَنَّ مِنْ قَوْمٍ خِيَانَةً فَانْبِذْ إِلَيْهِمْ عَلَىٰ سَوَاءٍ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْخَائِنِينَ
58 If you fear treachery on the part of a people, break off with them in a like manner. Allah does not like the treacherous.

also mentioned :

١٢ وَإِنْ نَكَثُوا أَيْمَانَهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ عَهْدِهِمْ وَطَعَنُوا فِي دِينِكُمْ فَقَاتِلُوا أَئِمَّةَ الْكُفْرِ ۙ إِنَّهُمْ لَا أَيْمَانَ لَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَنْتَهُونَ
12 But if they violate their oaths after their pledge, and attack your religion, then fight the leaders of disbelief—they have no faith—so that they may desist.
١٣ أَلَا تُقَاتِلُونَ قَوْمًا نَكَثُوا أَيْمَانَهُمْ وَهَمُّوا بِإِخْرَاجِ الرَّسُولِ وَهُمْ بَدَءُوكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ ۚ أَتَخْشَوْنَهُمْ ۚ فَاللَّهُ أَحَقُّ أَنْ تَخْشَوْهُ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ
13 Will you not fight a people who violated their oaths, and planned to exile the Messenger, and initiated hostilities against you? Do you fear them? It is Allah you should fear, if you are believers.
١٤ قَاتِلُوهُمْ يُعَذِّبْهُمُ اللَّهُ بِأَيْدِيكُمْ وَيُخْزِهِمْ وَيَنْصُرْكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَيَشْفِ صُدُورَ قَوْمٍ مُؤْمِنِينَ
14 Fight them. Allah will punish them at your hands, and humiliate them, and help you against them, and heal the hearts of a believing people.

5-Islam has declared war for helping the oppressed،

75 And why would you not fight in the cause of Allah, and the helpless men, and women, and children, cry out, “Our Lord, deliver us from this town whose people are oppressive, and appoint for us from Your Presence a Protector, and appoint for us from Your Presence a Victor.” [4 Al-Nisaa – 75]

also mentioned :

72 Those who believed, and emigrated, and struggled in Allah’s cause with their possessions and their persons, and those who provided shelter and support—these are allies of one another. As for those who believed, but did not emigrate, you owe them no protection, until they have emigrated. But if they ask you for help in religion, you must come to their aid, except against a people with whom you have a treaty. Allah is Seeing of what you do.
73 As for those who disbelieve, they are allies of one another. Unless you do this, there will be turmoil in the land, and much corruption. [ 8 Al-Anfal – 72:73]

6-Islam ordered its followers to prepare with sufficient force to terrorize the enemies, not attack them, and ordered them to establish a strong army with all the weapons, ammunition and equipment they could.

60 And prepare against them all the power you can muster, and all the cavalry you can mobilize, to terrify thereby Allah’s enemies and your enemies, and others besides them whom you do not know, but Allah knows them. Whatever you spend in Allah’s way will be repaid to you in full, and you will not be wronged. [ 8 Al-Anfal – 60 ]

7- Islam urged the principle of declaring war before fighting, in two Hadith of the prophet he said to two of his friends before going for war

‘Ali (May Allah be pleased with him) said: ”O Messenger of Allah, shall I fight against them until they are like us?” Thereupon he (the Prophet (ﷺ)) said, “Advance cautiously until you reach their open places; thereafter, invite them to Islam and inform them what is obligatory for them from the Rights of Allah, for, by Allah, if Allah guides even one person through you that is better for you than possessing a whole lot of red camels”.

7-Islam had the lead in distinguishing between fighters and other civilians who did not fight, the words of the prophet (PBUH) to the army leaders in all invasions:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: Go in Allah’s name, trusting in Allah, and adhering to the religion of Allah’s Apostle. Do not kill a decrepit old man, or a young infant, or a child, or a woman; do not be dishonest about booty, but collect your spoils, do right and act well, { Allah loves those who do well }.

9- keeping the Maintaining infrastructure safe, public and private money

Abu Bakr the first ruler of the Islamic nation after the prophet death said 

  • Do not commit treachery or deviate from the right path.
  • You must not mutilate dead bodies.
  • Neither kill a child, nor a woman, nor an aged man.
  • Bring no harm to the trees, nor burn them with fire, especially those which are fruitful.
  • Slay not any of the enemy’s flock, save for your food.
  • You are likely to pass by people who have devoted their lives to monastic services; leave them alone

Abu Bakr

10-Islam has developed a method in the treatment of prisoners, the essence of honoring and preserving the dignity of the prisoner and preserving his life.

70 O prophet! Say to those you hold prisoners, “If Allah finds any good in your hearts, He will give you better than what was taken from you, and He will forgive you. Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.”
71 But if they intend to betray you, they have already betrayed Allah, and He has overpowered them. Allah is Knowing and Wise. [8 al- Anfal – 70:71 ] 

also mentioned :

8 And they feed, for the love of Him(for allah), the poor, and the orphan, and the captive. [ 76 al- Ainsan – 8 ]

11-Islam has established the controls of internal armed tendencies that are not of an international nature through the principle of peaceful settlement of disputes between Muslims and other Muslims over the legitimate defense, Allah said in the Qur’an.

9 If two groups of believers fight each other, reconcile between them. But if one group aggresses against the other, fight the aggressing group until it complies with Allah’s command. Once it has complied, reconcile between them with justice, and be equitable. Allah loves the equitable. [49 al hugurat – 9 ] 

Allah ordered them to take peace between them first But if one group aggresses against the other, fight the aggressing group.

 

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3 men sitting in the mosque
caption by david-monje

Refernce :

  1. bbc article war in Islam
  2. Quraan
  3. Hadith

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